Part 4: IELTS Academic Writing Task 1 For Graph Comparison Vocabulary

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Vocabulary to represent comparison in graphs:

Type Word(s) should be used
Similar about / almost / nearly / roughly / approximately / around / just about / very nearly /
Just over just above / just over / just bigger / just beyond / just

across

Just short just below / just beneath / just sort / just under / just a

little

Much more well above / well above / well beyond / well across / well

over

Much less well below / well under / well short / well beneath

 Example:  

  1. The number of high-level women executives is well below the number of male executives

in this organisation, where approximately 2000 people work at executive levels.

  1. About 1000 people died in the highway car accident in 2003 which is well above the statistics of all other years.
  2. The number of domestic violence cases was just below 500 in March which is just a little

over than the previous months.

  1. The average rainfall in London in 2014 was just above the average of two other cities.
  2. The salaries of male executives in three out of four companies were well above the salaries of female executives in 1998.

 

Expressions to focus on an item in the graph:

Use the following expression to focus on an item in the graph.

» With regards to

» In the case of

» As for

» Turning to

» When it comes to ….. it/ they …..

» Where … is/are concerned,……

» Regarding

Compare and contrast:

Useful Vocabulary to make Comparison and Contrast:

» Similarly, In a similar fashion, In the same way, Same as, As much as, Meanwhile.

» However, On the contrary, on the other hand, in contrast.

Make sure you the appropriate comparative and superlative form of the words when you make a comparison. Here is a basic overview of the comparative and superlative forms to help you remember what you already know.

One-Syllable

Adjectives with one syllable form their comparatives and superlatives form. In your academic writing task 1, you will often use such comparison and contrast related words.

cheap » cheaper » cheapest   ||   large » larger » largest    ||    bright » brighter »

brightest etc.

Exceptions:

good » better » best   ||   bad » worse » worst etc.

Examples:

  1. The fast-food items in uptown restaurants were comparatively cheaper than that of city restaurants.
  1. The largest proportion of water was used in the agriculture sector in most of the Asian countries while the European countries used the highest percentage of water for industrial purposes.
  2. The price of the book in store “A” is cheaper than the price of store “B”.
  3. The temperature decreased further and that made the weather condition worse.
  4. The temperature was better in mid-April but in mid-July, it became worse.

Two Syllables

Some adjectives with two syllables form their comparatives and superlatives: pretty » prettier » prettiest    ||    happy » happier » happiest etc.

Examples:

  1. Customers were happier than now, according to the survey, as the price was cheaper in 1992.
  2. The overall production level of this company made the authority happier as it was doubled in the last quarter of the year.

But many form their comparatives and superlatives using ‘more‘:

striking » more striking » most striking    ||    common » more common » most common || clever » more clever/cleverer » most clever/cleverest etc.

Three or more Syllables

All adjectives with three or more syllables form their comparatives and superlatives using ‘more’ & ‘most’: attractive » more attractive » most attractive   ||   profitable » more profitable » most profitable   ||  expensive » more expensive » most expensive. Examples:

  1. Custom-made cars were more expensive in 2014 than they are now.
  2. The factory offered more attractive overtime rates and that motivated more employees to work for extra time.

Vocabulary to present Linkers:

  1. ..
  2. On the other hand…
  3. ..
  4. On the contrary…
  5. ..
  6. In contrast…
  7. By comparison… Vocabulary to show that something/a trend is similar or the same:

Use the following vocabularies if both subjects are the same/ identical:

… Identical to/ Identical with …

… Equal to with …

… Exactly the same …

… The same as …

… Precisely the same …

… Absolutely the same … … just the same as …

Use the following vocabularies if both subjects are not identical but similar: … Almost the same as …

… Nearly the same as …

… Practically the same as …

… Almost identical/ similar …

… About the same as …

Way to show that something/a trend is just the reverse/opposite: » The reverse is the case…

» It is quite the opposite/ reverse…

Rules of Time Preposition use:

‘In’

»» Use preposition ‘in’ when you talk about years, months, decades, centuries, seasons.

Example:

Years= in 1998, in 2015 etc.

Months= in January, in December etc.

Decades= in the nineties, in the seventies etc.

Centuries= in the 19th century, in the 14th century, in the 1980s etc.

Seasons= in summer, in winter, in autumn etc.

»» Use preposition ‘in’ to talk about past or future. Example:

Past time= in 1980, in the past, in 1235, in the ice age, in the seventies, in the last century etc.

Future time = in 2030, in the future, in the next century etc. »» Use preposition ‘in’ when you talk about a long period. Example:

in the ice age, in the industrial age, in the iron age etc.

‘On’

»» Use preposition ‘on’ when you talk about days (days of the weeks or special days). Example:

Days of the week= on Sunday, on Friday, on Tuesday.

Special days= on New Year’s Day, on your birthday, on Independence Day, on holiday, on wedding day etc. 

»» Use preposition ‘on’ when you talk about dates. Example:

on July 4th, on 21st January 2015, on 5th May etc.

»» Use preposition ‘on’  when you talk about times (like morning/ afternoon/ evening/ night) of a day.  Example:

on Friday morning, on Saturday afternoon, on Sunday evening, on Monday evening etc.

However, notice the below list that shows further use of prepositions ‘in’ and ‘on’ for periods of the days versus periods. This is often confusing and mistakenly used by IELTS

candidates. Look at those, notice the use and memorise it.

in on
in the morning on Sunday morning
in the afternoon on Monday afternoon
in the evening on Tuesday evening

‘At’

»» Use preposition ‘at’ when you need to express an exact time.

Example: At eight o’clock, at 10: 45 am, at two p.m, at nine o’clock.

»» Use preposition ‘at’ when you talk about meal times

Example: At breakfast time, at lunchtime, at dinner time etc.

»» Use preposition ‘at’ when you talk about weekends, holiday periods, or the nighttime.

Example: At the weekend, at Christmas, at Easter, at night etc.

Words to make a comparison /contrast:

A bit/ slightly/ a little/ only just/ approximately/ about/ almost/ precisely/ quite/ nearly/ considerably/ a huge/ a great deal/ quite a lot/ completely/ exactly…

Example:

» This year the population growth of the country is slightly higher than the previous year.

» This year the population grown is almost twice than that of 2007.

» Sale of the company has increased quite a lot this year.

Using Appropriate Prepositions:

You must use the correct preposition in IELTS writing task 1 to get a high score. Be accurate about the uses of to, by, of, off, in, on, for etc. Examples:

» Papers are sold by the ream.

» Oranges are purchased and sold by the dozen.

» Students enrollment in the University has increased by 2% this year.

» Eggs are counted in dozens.

» Rice is measured in kg.

» He is junior to me by 4 years.

» The employees are paid per week in this factory.

» All these products are made of glasses.

Vocabulary – Using the appropriate “Prepositions”:

» It started at…, The sale started at $20…, It peaked at

» It reached at/to…, It reached the lowest point /nadir at

»It increased to 80 from 58. It decreased from 10 to 3.

»There was a drop of six units. It dropped by 3 units.

»It declined by 15%. There was a 10% drop in the next three years.

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