# Part 3: IELTS Academic Writing Task 1 For Vocabulary Date month etc.

## IELTS Academic Writing Task 1 For Vocabulary Date month

• From 1990 to 2000, Commencing from 1980, Between 1995 and 2005, After 2012.
• By 1995, In 1998, In February, Over the period, During the period, During 2011.
• In the first half of the year, For the first quarter, The last quarter of the year, During the first decade.
• In the 80s, In the 1980s, During the next 6 months, In the mid-70s, Next 10 years, Previous year, Next year, Between 1980 – 1990.
• Within a time span of ten years, within five years.
• Next month, Next quarter, Next year, Previous month, Previous year.
• Since, Then, From.

### Percentage, Portion and Numbers:

Percentages:

10% increase, 25 percent decrease, increased by 15%, dropped by 10 per cent, fall at 50%, reached to 75%, tripled, doubled, one-fourth, three-quarters, half, double fold, treble, 5 times higher, 3 timers lower, declined to about 49%, stood exactly at 43%.

Fractions:

4% = A tiny fraction.

24% = Almost a quarter.

25% Exactly a quarter.

26% = Roughly one quarter.

32% Nearly one-third, nearly a third.

49% = Around a half, just under a half.

50% Exactly a half.

51% = Just over a half.

73% = Nearly three quarters.

77% = Approximately three quarter, more than three-quarter.

79% = Well over three quarters.

Proportions:

2% = A tiny portion, a very small proportion.

4% = An insignificant minority, an insignificant proportion.

16% = A small minority, a small portion.

70% = A large proportion.

72% = A significant majority, A significant proportion.89% = A very large proportion.

89% = A very large proportion.

Words/ Phrases of Approximation – Vocabulary:

» Approximately

» Nearly

» Roughly

» Almost

» Around

» More or less

» Just over

» Just under

» Just around

» Just below » A little more than » A little less than. What criteria would a band 9 graph response satisfy?

1. Fully satisfies all the requirements of the task.
2. Clearly presents a fully developed response.

What will be assessed by the examiner?

1. How appropriately, accurately and relevantly you fulfil your task requirements.
2. How accurately you write your report and how appropriately you present the data

(compare/ contrast/ show the most striking trends/ features/ data.)

### Coherence and Cohesion:

1. Uses cohesion in such a way that it attracts no attention.
2. Skillfully manages “paragraphing”.

What will be assessed by the examiner?

1. No misinterpretation and presentation of data and trends.
2. How well you organise your paragraphs.
3. Overall clarity and fluency of your report and message.
4. How well you have organised and liked the information, data and ideas in your writing.
5. Logical sequencing and appropriate use of linking devices between and within your

### Tips:

1. Do not incorporate more than 3-4 paragraphs.
2. Do not use a single paragraph to describe everything.
3. The conclusion part is optional. If you think that you have already written more than 170 words and have nothing to say, you can skip the conclusion. Lexical Resource:
1. Uses a wide range of vocabulary with very natural and sophisticated control of lexical features.
2. Rare minor errors occur only as “slips”. What will be assessed by the examiner?
3. The range of vocabulary you have used in your writing.
4. How accurately and appropriately you have used words/ phrases while presenting the graph(s) as a report.

Tips: Do NOT use words/ phrases that are already given in the question. Do so only if there is no alternative word(s)/ phrase(s) to convey the same meaning/idea.

### Grammatical Range and Accuracy:

1. Uses a wide range of structures with full flexibility and accuracy.
2. Rare minor errors occur only as “slips”.

Tips:

Do not use the same sentence structure and data comparison/ contrasting style over and over again. Bring a variety in your writing to show that you can formulate different sentence structures without making any grammatical mistakes.

Vocabulary to represent the highest and lowest points in graphs:

 Type Verb Noun Highest Point peaked / culminated / climaxed / reach  the peak / hit the peak / touch the highest point / reach the vertex/ reach the apex a (/the) peak / a (/the) pinnacle / a (/the) vertex / the highest point/ an (/the) apex / a (/the) summit, a (/the) top, a (/the) pinnacle, a (/the) acme, a (/the) zenith, Lowest Point touch the lowest point / get the lowest point / reached the nadir the lowest point / the lowest mark / bottommost point / rock bottom point/ bottommost mark / nadir/ the all-time low/ the lowest level/ the bottom/ rock-bottom

Example:

1. The price of the oil reached a peak amounting \$20 in February and again touched the lowest point amounting only \$10 in July.
2. Student enrollment in foreign Universities and Colleges increased dramatically hitting a peak of over 20 thousand in 2004.
1. The highest number of books was sold in July while it was lowest in December.
1. The oil price reached a peak in 2003 while it was lowest in 2006.
2. The selling volume of the DVD hit the peak with 2 million copies sold in a month but after just three months it reached the bottom with only 20 thousand sold in a month.

### Vocabulary to show fluctuations/ups and downs/ rise and fall in Verb forms:

» Be erratic

» Rise and fall erratically

» Rise and fall irregularly » Changes Intermittently

Date, month & year related Vocabulary and Grammatical rules:

» Between  …(year/ month)…  and  …(year/ month)

» From  …(year/ month/ day/date)…  to  …(year/ month/day/date)

» In  …(year/ month)

» On  …(day/ day of the week/ a date)

» At ……,  In ……,  By ……

» During  … (year)

» Over the period/ over the century/ later half of the year/ the year…

» Over the next/ past/ previous …….. days/ weeks/ months/ years/ decades…

### Presenting Percentages:

You can present “percentage data” in one of three different ways. It is suggested that you use all these formats in your report writing instead of repeating the same style to show percentages in your writing.

% = In percentage / in %. (20%, 25 percentage, ten per cent etc.)

% = In proportion. (two out of five, every student out of three etc.)

% = In fraction. (one-third, two-fifth, a quarter etc.)

Vocabulary to show how many times…

» Exactly the same.

» Roughly the same

» Practically the same

» Twice

» Thrice

» Four times

» Five times

……………

» Ten times

……………

» Hundred times.

### 1. Compare sections of the pie chart

Householders spend 25% of their household income on food. This is more than five times what they spend on power and just over twice the amount spent on transport, which comes in at 12%. There are many ways to make comparisons, so this gives you a great deal of flexibility. Here are some comparative words that you can use

• Most
• Least
• More
• Less
• As
• Not as

### 2. Use fractions in place of %

It is not necessary to use percentages in the description of the graph. Fractions work just as well. So, you could say that a quarter of household income is spent on food. This is a great way to show the breadth of your vocabulary.

### 3. Find other words to describe the graph

So, you could say, for example, that while a quarter of the household income is spent on food each month, at 22%, only slightly less is spent on education. The smallest proportion of the household income pays for power with \$5 of every \$100 spent on power.

The following words should help you to become more adventurous in your descriptions of the graph.

• Proportion
• Figure
• Number/ amount
• One in five, one in ten

### 4. Try grouping things together and think about how you order the words

So, you could say that almost 60% of household incomes are spent on food, clothing, and education. While households spend almost as much on transport as they do on clothing. When all household expenses are paid most households can save just \$15 out of every \$100.

## Practice

Practice makes perfect, so try to apply the knowledge that we have mentioned above to describe.

### Vocabulary to show how much changed…

» Halved

» Equalled

» Doubled

» Trebled /tripled

» Quadrupled (fourfold /four times)

» Pentadrupled (fivefold /five times)

» Hexadrupled (sixfold /six times)

» Septupled (sevenfold /seven times)

» Octupled  (Eightfold/eight times)

» Nonupled (Ninefold/ nine times)

……………..

Centupled (hundredfold/ hundred times)

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