- Once upon a time, software development consisted of a programmer writing code to solve a problem or automate a procedure. Nowadays, systems are so big and complex that teams of architects, analysts, programmers, testers and users must work together to create the millions of lines of custom-written code that drive our enterprises.
- To manage this, a number of system development life cycle (SDLC) models have been created: waterfall, fountain, spiral, build and fix, rapid prototyping, incremental, and synchronize and stabilize.
What is SDLC?
- The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is the process of determining how an information system (IS) can support business needs, designing the system, building it, and delivering it to users.
The systems development life cycle (SDLC), also referred to as the application development life-cycle, is a term used in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering to describe a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an information system.
SDLC key person?
- The key person in the SDLC is the systems analyst, who analyzes the business situation, identifies opportunities for improvements, and designs an information system to implement the improvements.
THE SYSTEMS ANALYST
- The systems analyst plays a key role in information systems development projects.
- The systems analyst works closely with all project team members so that the team develops the right system in an effective way.
- Systems analysts must understand how to apply technology to solve business problems.
- In addition, systems analysts may serve as change agents who identify the organizational improvements needed, design systems to implement those changes, and train and motivate others to use the systems.
Systems Analyst Skills
- Skills can be broken down into six major categories:
- TECHNICAL skill,
- BUSINESS skill,
- ANALYTICAL skill,
- INTERPERSONAL skill,
- MANAGEMENT skill,
- ETHICAL issue.
- Analysts must have the technical skills to understand the organization’s existing technical environment, the new system’s technology foundation, and the way in which both can be fit into an integrated technical solution.
- Business skills are required to understand how IT can be applied to business situations and to ensure that the IT delivers real business value.
- Analysts are continuous problem solvers at both the project and the organizational level, and they put their analytical skills to the test regularly.
- Often, analysts need to communicate effectively, one-on-one with users and business managers (who often have little experience with technology) and with programmers (who often have more technical expertise than the analyst does).
- They must be able to give presentations to large and small groups and to write reports.
- They also need to manage people with whom they work, and they must manage the pressure and risks associated with unclear situations.
- Finally, analysts must deal fairly, honestly, and ethically with other project team members, managers, and system users.
- Analysts often deal with confidential information or information that, if shared with others, could cause harm (e.g., dissent among employees); it is important for analysts to maintain confidence and trust with all people.
Systems Analyst Roles
- The roles and the names used to describe them may vary from organization to organization.
Systems analyst role
- The systems analyst role focuses on the IS issues surrounding the system.
- This person develops ideas and suggestions for ways that IT can support and improve business processes, helps design new business processes supported by IT, designs the new information system, and ensures that all IS standards are maintained.
- The systems analyst will have significant training and experience in analysis and design and in programming.
Business analyst role
- The business analyst role focuses on the business issues surrounding the system.
- This person helps to identify the business value that the system will create, develops ideas for improving the business processes, and helps design new business processes and policies.
- The business analyst will have business training and experience, plus knowledge of analysis and design.
Requirements analyst role
- The requirements analyst role focuses on eliciting the requirements from the stakeholders associated with the new system.
- As more organizations recognize the critical role that complete and accurate requirements play in the ultimate success of the system, this specialty has gradually evolved.
- Requirements analysts understand the business well, are excellent communicators, and are highly skilled in an array of requirements elicitation techniques.
Infrastructure analyst role
- The infrastructure analyst role focuses on technical issues surrounding the ways the system will interact with the organization’s technical infrastructure (hardware, software, networks, and databases).
- The infrastructure analyst will have significant training and experience in networking, database administration, and various hardware and software products.
Change management analyst role
- The change management analyst role focuses on the people and management issues surrounding the system installation.
- This person ensures that adequate documentation and support are available to users, provides user training on the new system, and develops strategies to overcome resistance to change.
- The change management analyst will have significant training and experience in organizational behavior and specific expertise in change management.
Project manager role
The project manager role ensures that the project is completed on time and within budget and that the system delivers the expected value to the organization.
- The project manager is often a seasoned systems analyst who, through training and experience, has acquired specialized project management knowledge and skills.
Suppose you decide to become an analyst after you graduate. What type of analyst would you most prefer to be? What type of courses should you take before you graduate? What type of internship should you seek?
- Develop a short plan that describes how you will prepare for your career as an analyst.
THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
- In many ways, building an information system is similar to building a house.
THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
- First, the owner describes the vision for the house to the developer.
- Second, this idea is transformed into sketches and drawings that are shown to the owner and refined (often, through several drawings, each improving on the other) until the owner agrees that the pictures depict what he or she wants.
- Third, a set of detailed blue-prints is developed that presents much more specific information about the house (e.g., the layout of rooms, placement of plumbing fixtures and electrical outlets, and so on).
- Finally, the house is built following the blueprints and often with some changes and decisions made by the owner as the house is erected.
- Building an information system using the SDLC follows a similar set of four fundamental phases: