Q1 (False) (Many Madagascan forests are being destroyed by attacks from insects.)
Madagascar’s forests are being converted to agricultural land at a rate of one percent every year. Much of this destruction is fuelled by the cultivation of the country’s main staple crop: rice. And a key reason for this destruction is that insect pests are destroying vast quantities of what is grown by local subsistence farmers, leading them to clear forest to create new paddy fields.
This means destruction occurred by farmers not insects.
Q2 (False) Loss of habitat has badly affected insectivorous bats in Madagascar.
In paragraph 1 the last few lines, the result is devastating habitat and biodiversity loss on the island, but not all species are suffering. In fact, some of the island’s insectivorous bats are currently thriving and this has important implications for farmers and conservationists alike.
Thrive= prosper, heighten, gain, flourish, improve
Q3 NOT GIVEN (Ricardo Rocha has carried out studies of bats in different parts of the world)
In paragraph 2 the last few lines, Rocha’s new study shows that several species of bats are giving Madagascar’s rice farmers a vital pest control service by feasting on plagues of insects.
Nothing about mention Rocha’s worldwide studies.
Q 4 (TRUE) Habitat modification has resulted in indigenous bats in Madagascar becoming useful to farmers.
In paragraph 3, Bats comprise roughly one-fifth of all mammal species in Madagascar and thirty-six recorded bat species are native to the island, making it one of the most important regions for conservation of this animal group anywhere in the world.
In paragraph 4, Co-leading an international team of scientists, Rocha found that several species of indigenous bats are taking advantage of habitat modification to hunt insects swarming above the country’s rice fields. They include the Malagasy mouse-eared bat, Major’s long-fingered bat, the Malagasy white-bellied free-tailed bat and Peters’ wrinkle-lipped bat.
Q5 NOT GIVEN
The Malagasy mouse-eared bat is more common than other indigenous bat species in Madagascar.
In paragraph 4 last few lines,. They include the Malagasy mouse-eared bat, Major’s long-fingered bat, the Malagasy white-bellied free-tailed bat and Peters’ wrinkle-lipped bat.
Here is no compare in passage.
Q6 (TRUE)Bats may feed on paddy swarming caterpillars and grass webworms.
In paragraph 4, We found that six species of bat are preying on rice pests, including the paddy swarming caterpillar and grass webworm.
In paragraph 7 the last line, They next used DNA barcoding techniques to analyse droppings collected from bats at the different sites.
In paragraph 8 the last few lines, the bats were consuming pests of other crops, including the black twig borer (which infests coffee plants), the sugarcane cicada, the macadamia nut-borer, and the sober tabby (a pest of citrus fruit)
Consuming = use, eat
In paragraph 10 the last few lines, Rocha and his team found evidence that Malagasy bats feed not just on crop pests but also on mosquitoes – carriers of malaria, Rift Valley fever virus and elephantiasis – as well as blackflies, which spread river blindness.
- Use for explanation.
In paragraph 11 the first few lines Rocha points out that the relationship is complicated. When food is scarce, bats become a crucial source of protein for local people.
Same In paragraph 11 “And as well as roosting in trees, the bats sometimes roost in buildings, but are not welcomed there because they make them unclean.
Same In paragraph 11 ,At the same time, however, they are associated with sacred caves and the ancestors, so they can be viewed as beings between worlds, which makes them very significant in the culture of the people.
Same In paragraph 11 last few lines. Rocha says, ‘With the right help, we hope that farmers can promote this mutually beneficial relationship by installing bat houses.’
READING PASSAGE 2
Does education fuel economic growth?
Q14 an explanation of the need for research to focus on individuals with a fairly consistent income
From paragraph E line 2 to 5, the writer has explained the need for research to look at individuals consistant income.“an explanation of the need for research” = it is time ‘to ask the (big questions=to find out)’. “focus on individuals with a fairly consistent income = This involves following the lives of different people with the same level of wealth over a period of time. If wealth is constant(consistent income), it is possible to discover(to focus) whether education was, for example, linked to the cultivation of new crops, or to the adoption of industrial innovations like sewing machines. research
Q15 examples of the sources the database has been compiled from
From paragraph A, line 3 to 6, “database has been compiled from ”=a huge database about the lives of southwest German villagers between 1600 and 1900 has been compiled by a team led by Professor Sheilagh Ogilvie.” examples of the sources”= It includes court records, guild ledgers, parish registers, village censuses, tax lists and – the most recent addition – 9,000 handwritten inventories listing over a million personal possessions belonging to ordinary women and men across three centuries.
Q16 an account of one individual’s refusal to obey an order
From paragraph D, line 3 to 6, “an account of one individual’s”=The database also reveals the case of Juliana Schweickherdt, a 50-year-old spinster living in the small Black Forest community of Wildberg, “refusal to obey an order”=reprimanded(disaaproved) in 1752 by the local weavers’ guild for ‘weaving cloth and combing wool, counter to the guild ordinance(community regulations)’. When Juliana continued taking jobs reserved for male guild
Q17 a reference to a region being particularly suited to research into the link between education and economic growth
In paragraph F, “a reference to a region”= German-speaking central Europe, “particularly suited to research into”= German-speaking central Europe, “the relationship(=link) between education and economic growth is far from straightforward(=not easy to understand)”=link between education and economic growth
Q18 examples of the items included in a list of personal possessions
In paragraph c line 2 to 6, “list of personal possessions”=belongings of women and men at marriage, remarriage and death. “examples of the items”= From badger skins to Bibles, sewing machines to scarlet bodices – the villagers’ entire worldly goods are included. Inventories of agricultural equipment and craft tools reveal economic activities; ownership of books and educationrelated objects like pens and slates suggests how people learned.
Q 19 descendants
Paragraph D, “The database that Ogilvie and her team has compiled”=Ogilvie and her team have been building the vast database,” The database that Ogilvie and her team has compiled”= full demographic reconstruction of the people who lived in these two German communities.” as well as those of their 19 …………………………………… ,over a 300-year period”= and their descendants(heir) – across 300 years
Paragraph D, Ana Regina and Magdalena Riethmullerin were reprimanded(chastise) while they should have been paying attention to(listening)= Ana Regina and Magdalena Riethmiillerin, who were chastised in 1707 for reading books in church instead of listening to the sermon.”
Paragraph D, There was also Juliana Schweickherdt, who came to the notice of the weavers’ guild in the year 1752 for breaking guild rules.”= reprimanded in 1752 by the local weavers’ guild for ‘weaving cloth and combing wool, counter to the guild ordinance.
“As a punishment, she was later given a”= she was summoned before the guild court and told (to pay a fine=as a punishment).
Paragraph D, “Cases like this illustrate how the guilds could prevent”= The dominance of guilds, (held back=prevent) even the simplest industrial innovation, “stop skilled people from working”= prevented people from using their skills.
Q23 Which TWO of the following statements does the writer make about literacy rates in Section B?
- Very little research has been done into the link between high literacy rates and improved earnings(=line 3 & 4,But, if you look back through history, there’s no evidence that having a high literacy rate made a country industrialise earlier). So A incorrect
- Literacy rates in Germany between 1600 and 1900 were very good.(=line 3 Between 1600 and 1900, line 6.During this period, Germany and Scandinavia had excellent literacy rates) So B correct
- There is strong evidence that high literacy rates in the modern world result in economic growth. (= ‘Modern cross-country analyses have also struggled to find evidence that education causes economic growth, even though there is plenty of evidence that growth increases education). So C incorrect
- England is a good example of how high literacy rates helped a country industrialise.(line 4 to 6= Between 1600 and 1900, England had only mediocre(very Low) literacy rates by European standards, yet its economy grew fast and it was the first country to industrialise) So D incorrect
- Economic growth can help to improve literacy rates.(Passage last line= even though there is plenty of evidence that growth increases education) So E correct
Ans 23 & 24: B,E.
Q 25 Which TWO of the following statements does the writer make in Section F about guilds in German-speaking Central Europe between 1600 and 1900?
A They helped young people to learn a skill (line 3 & 4 No information). So A incorrect
B They were opposed to people moving to an area for work(last 2 line =In villages throughout the region, guilds blocked labour migration.). So B correct
C They kept better records than guilds in other parts of the world(in line 6,local guilds and merchant associations were extremely powerful but no but there no information either they kept better records than others). So C incorrect
D They opposed practices that threatened their control over a trade(line 6&7= local guilds and merchant associations were extremely powerful and legislated against(=opposed practices) anything that undermined their monopolies). So D correct
E They predominantly consisted of wealthy merchants(No information wheather merchants wealthy or not). So E incorrect
Ans 25, 26= B,D
READING PASSAGE 3: Timur Gareyev – blindfold chess champion
Q27 a reference to earlier examples of blindfold chess
In paragraph D,” earlier examples of blindfold chess”= blindfold chess seems to call for superhuman skill. But displays of the feat go back centuries. The first recorded game in Europe was played in 1Q3th-century Florence(1st earlier examples of blindfold chess). In 194 7, the Argentinian grandmaster Miguel Najdorf(C) played 45 simultaneous games in his mind.
Q28 an outline of what blindfold chess involves
In paragraph E line Q2 to 4, “what blindfold chess involves”=The nature of the game is to run through possible moves in the mind to see how they play out. From this, regular players develop a memory for the patterns the pieces make, the defences and attacks. That is writer mention this game involves in possible moves in mind, where player develop a pattern, defence, attack etc.
Q29 a claim that Gareyev’s skill is limited to chess
In paragraph F, “Gareyev’s skill is limited to chess” =The scientists first had Gareyev perform some standard memory tests. These assessed his ability to hold numbers, pictures and words in mind. One classic test measures how many numbers a person can repeat, both forwards and backwards, soon after hearing them. Most people manage about seven. ‘He was not exceptional on any of these standard tests,’ said Rissman. ‘We didn’t find anything other than playing chess that he seems to be supremely gifted at.’
In lines Q2 to 4 of paragraph, writer says that gareyev performed some memory tests but we didn’t find anything else other than playing chess that he seems to be supremely gifted. It means that gareyebs skill is limited to chess only.
Q30 why Gareyev’s skill is of interest to scientists
In paragraph B,” Gareyev’s skill is of interest to scientists”= But Gareyev’s prowess has drawn interest from beyond the chess-playing community. In the hope of understanding how he and others like him can perform such mental feats, researchers at the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) called him in for tests. This means scientist wants to know how others like Gareyev’s can perform such game.Ans: H
Q31 an outline of Gareyev’s priorities
In paragraph H, “Gareyev’s priorities”=For the world record attempt, Gareyev hopes to play 47 blindfold games at once in about 16 hours(1st priority). most important part of blindfold chess for me is that I have found the one thing that I can fully dedicate myself to. He will….the. most important part of blindfold chess for me is that I have found the one thing that I can fully dedicate myself to(Q2nd priority).Ans:B
Q32 a reason why the last part of a game may be difficult
In paragragh E list few lines, “last part of a game may be difficult”=But the ends of games are taxing(Too difficult) too, as exhaustion sets in. When Gareyev is tired, his recall can get patchy(irregular,inconsistant). He sometimes makes moves based on only a fragmented memory(irregularly sequence of memory) of the pieces’ positions. Ans: E
Q33(False) In the forthcoming games, all the participants will be blindfolded.
In paragraph A, “In the forthcoming games”= Next month, a chess player named Timur Gareyev will take on nearly 50 opponents. “all the participants will be blindfolded”= While his challengers will play the games as normal, Gareyev himself will be blindfolded. Its clear that except Gareyes, all are normal(not blindfolded).
Q34 (Not given) Gareyev has won competitions in BASE jumping.
In paragraph A line 6, “won competitions in BASE jumping” = he gets his kicks(enjoyment) from the adventure sport of BASE jumping. No information for competitions on BASE jumping.
Q35 (Not Given)UCLA is the first university to carry out research into blindfold chess players.
In paragraph B, UCLA is the first university, research into blindfold chess players = (line Q3&4) researchers at the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) called him in for tests. They now have their first results. There is no mention that UCLA is the first research to carry out that research.
Q36 (True)Good chess players are likely to be able to play blindfold chess.
In paragraph B “Good chess players”=(line 5 end) most accomplished(good) players,” likely to be able to play blindfold chess”= (line 4 & 5)’The ability to play a game of chess with your eyes closed is not a far reach( not a great thing) that means they able to play blindfold.
In paragraph F 1st line, “The researchers(Scientist) started by testing Gareyev’s Q37 …………………………………… ;” = The scientists first had Gareyev perform some standard memory tests.
In paragraph F, Q2nd & Q3rd line “for example, he was required to recall a string of Q38 …………………………………… in order and also in reverse order.” = One classic test(Example) measures how many numbers a person can repeat, both forwards and backwards.
Although his performance was normal, scans showed an unusual amount of Q39 …………………………………… within the areas of Gareyev’s brain that are concerned with = (in F, line 9 & 10) results are tentative and as yet unpublished, the scans found much greater than average(unusual amount) communication between parts of Gareyev’s brain that make up what is.
In G paragraph, line Q3 &4, “In addition, the scans raised the possibility of unusual strength in the parts of his brain that deal with 40 …………………………………… input”= Initial results suggest that the areas of his brain that process visual images – such as chess boards – may have stronger links to other brain regions, and so be more powerful than normal(unusual strength).